Antioch of Pisidia (lat. Antiochia ad Pisidiam) – antique city in Pisidia (now - Yalvac town, Yalvac, province of Isparta in Turkey), it founded in III. BC. under the rule Selevk I Nicator, former military leader and a bodyguard of Alexander the Great, founded the Seleucid dynasty.
A little history or 10 historical facts about Antioch in Pisidia
1) The first inhabitants of the city have been displaced from Magnesia-on-Meande (a town in Ionia, at 19 km from Ephesus).
2) Antiochus III the Great (241 -187 BC) relocated 2000 Jewish families from Babylon (region of Phrygia and Lydia).
3) In 188 y. BC. after the victory of the Romans over the Seleucids, Pisidian Antioch became a free city.
4) In 25 y. BC. Roman Emperor Augustus in the colony turns Antioch (Colonia Caeserea Antiochia), it includes a part of the Roman province of Galatia and inhabits the veterans of the Roman army.
5) I century (BC). – the beginning of the heyday of the city, stone roads was built in the city, was built baths, plumbing, temples, streets with columns.
6) The first half of the I BC. – Pisidian Antioch became the capital of the province of Pisidia and called Caesarea of Antioch.
7) Some Romans of Antioch in Pisidia were members of the Roman Senate.
8) In 50 y. BC. Antioch was visited by St. Paul and Barnabas. St.Paul had three trips to Antioch, then he founded the first Christian church in the city.
9) During the reign of Emperor Constantine the Great (306-337 year) in the city there was three churches, and then placed the Department of the Archdiocese of Pisidia (it lasted until the XII century).
10) In the VIII century by the Arabs attacked Antioch was destroyed and had lost its political and commercial significance.
What's interesting in Antioch of Pisidia now
It is necessary to say at once, that area of the city was a large, therefore more than 2/3 part of the city is still hidden under the ground. By the way, the beginning of a serious excavations in Antioch put a team of Scottish archaeologist William Mitchell Ramsay (1911-1923 years).
And so, what can be seen in Antioch of Pisidia.
1) Temple of Augustus – the most spectacular monumental complex in Antioch, it begins immediately after the ascent of 12 steps of Propylon. Construction of the temple began, when the Emperor Augustus was alive (63 y. BC – 14 y. BC) and completed only after his death. The temple was built on the highest point of the city, carved in the rock, It has a semi-circular podium and at first sight overwhelms its decorative and architectural wealth. To form a semi-circle and smooth the area, in the center of the podium as a huge block it was left to the temple height 14×28 m and 2,5 m. The interior of this podium was cut to create a cult-room (Naos). The size of the temple territorial – 100×85 m, and semicircular portico had two floors, lower – with Doric columns without bases, and the upper – with thin Ionic columns. It is believed, that in all this construction was used about 150 columns.
2) propylon – monumental passage (to the Temple of Augustus), built in honor of Octavian Augustus, the founder of the Roman Empire, and his naval victory of Actium over Mark Antony in 31 BC.
3) The main intersecting streets of the city Dekumanus Maximus (oriented from west to east, beginning at the western gate, length – 410 m) and Cardo Maximus (oriented from north to south, beginning at the Nymphaeum, length – 400 m) They were built perperdikulyarno each other on the basis of urban development Hippodamus Miletus, They were shopping streets with shops and had a drainage system.
4) area Tiberius – central square size 30h70m, It was built in 25-50 y. BC, located between the street Cardo maximus and central church. Here the stone was found, on which was written, that the two main streets of the city made a cobbled resident Titus Baebius Asiaticus their own money.
5) Amphitheater – built in the Hellenistic period, but it reconstructed in the period from 311 but 313 year, roominess – up to 5000 viewers.
6) Southern city walls – small visible part of the wall, however wall length is about 3 km, wall height – 1.5-5.5 m.
7) Nimfeum – monumental fountain, I built in the first half of the I. BC, I have a reservoir for collecting water from the aqueduct 27h3 m, Pool 27h7 m and depth 1.5 m, decorated facade height 9 m.
8) Western gate – monumental entry into the city size 24h12 m, It built in honor of the Emperor Hadrian in 120 year, and in 200 It was rebuilt in the triumphal arch.
9) Basilica (Church of St. Paul) – One of the most important complexes of Antioch, considered one of the two earliest examples of early Christian churches in Anatolia (another example – Antioch on the Orontes). It is believed, that the church was built on the site of a synagogue, in which Saint Paul spent his life for the Gentiles. The church on the site of the altar mosaic inscription was found, whereby Bishop Optimus represented Antioch to Constantinople Council in 381 year (During construction of the first bazilicheskih churches in Asia Minor). The size of the church – 70H27 m, It was excavated in 1924 year and then 80 s forgotten.
10) Byzantine (central) church – It was built in 4 century, excavated and identified only 1924 year, in the church found an iron seal with the names of the three martyrs period of Diocletian: Neona, Nikon and Heliodorus.
Besides, It should be noted, that during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian (284 – 305 year) the city was tortured and then beheaded young Christian, not renounce their faith, named Marina. In 494 by Pope Gelasius she was declared a saint noncanonical (Holy Martyr Marina).
Active veneration of the Holy Martyr Marina started during the Crusades.
Memorial Day sv.Mariny – 17 (30) July.
Access to the Antioch – 5 TL, museum cards are accepted.
ALL PHOTOS Antioch in the gallery
Antioch Pisidiyskaya on the map