History Bodrum castle It began long before its inception and has been filled with many exciting events. Created out of the ruins mausoleum Mavsola, who was one of Seven Wonders of the World, He served as the main structure Order of St. John, was named St. Peter's, He participated in many historical events, He managed to survive, although, which is often passed from one hand to another conflict.
The castle was the strengthening Order of St. John or Hospitaller Order, He passed into the hands of Sultan Suleyman, It was the base of Turkish troops, a prison and even took in the walls of an Italian military garrison. Reassured and lowered for a well deserved rest almost half a century, Bodrum castle re-opened its doors at the end of the 20th century, This time - visitors Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
In just a few centuries BC on the site of the modern Turkish city Bodrum He was known in the whole district policy Galikarnas. It was founded by Greeks from the western part of the Peloponnese, originally from Troezen, I was in Argolida, which belonged to one of the Dorian tribes. We can not say for sure, when there was a policy: perhaps, in the era of large-scale settlement and colonization of the Greeks on the territory of the Mediterranean, approximately in the VIII century BC, and can, before, when the settlement marshmallows are here, received its name in honor of the isthmus Zefirium, that shared the peninsula and Asia Minor. The first mention of the legendary policy occurs even in Herodotus.
widely known Galikarnas I received by one of the Wonders of the World - Mausoleum of King Mausolus, who erected after his death, a widow in memory of loss. This happened in 377-353 Years BC. Structure amazed contemporaries scale and grandeur. It survived several major earthquakes, and it was destroyed 1402 year, marked the beginning of shaking on the magnitude of change in the life of the region.
By that time (at 15 century) Order of St. John already occupied castle in Rhodes. However, in order to contain the growing onslaught of the Turks and Seljuks, it was not enough. In order to maintain position Philibert de Nyack, who held the post of the Supreme Master of the Order, the city has been chosen Bodrum to strengthen the construction of the new.
Bodrum He had a number of advantages: its strategic location was isolated and finding near the current headquarters of the Hospitaller.
Work on the construction of the castle was started in 1402 year, Knight led them architect from Germany Henry Shlelelolt. The material used for the walls were part of the bas-relief and the ruins of the ancient mausoleum.
Construction of the castle was so important to strengthen the influence of the Order on the peninsula, in 1409 a special decree issued by Pope, guaranteed to all, those involved in the construction, the remission of sins and getting into Paradise.
Already in 1406 in the territory of the future fortress was built crypt. A lock fences were completely built in the 1437 year.
In 1519-20 Spain's Knights of the chapel was rebuilt in the spirit of the then dominant Gothic style. They carved their names on the stones, who to this day can be found on the corners of the facade. Almost a hundred years Bodrum castle It provides protection to all the Christians of Anatolia and served as one of the most significant buildings ioantsev.
Ottomanskaya Empire repeatedly attacked the building. The raids began in 1453 year, when Constantinople fell, but the castle resisted, As in 1480 year, winning the battle with the army of the Sultan Mehmed II.
The protection of the walls of the fortress there is an attempt on the Second Bayezida his brother and son Mehmed II - Prince Sam.
However, because of the constant attacks and the natural course of time the fence needs to be strengthened. Therefore, 1494 , residents Fortress of St. Peter again used the ruins of the Mausoleum.
In 1505-1507 years, fearing attack the army of Sultan Suleiman, Philip Viyem de l'Isle-Adam - Chapter Hospitaller - ordered to reinforce the walls of the castle and pick up the last of the surviving sculptures of the Mausoleum, to decorate St. Peter's castle.
In order to reflect the bullet strikes on the part of the continent, the walls of the fortress were strengthened again. But Fabrizio del Carretto, who served as Grand Master of the Order in 1513-1521 years, erected a bastion of circular shape, to protection appropriate to the castle at the time of the reliability. In 1522 year ioantsy dismantled ruins of the mausoleum to the last stone.
In the middle 1522 year Sultan Suleyman He gathered two hundred thousandth army soldiers and attacked the headquarters of the Order on the island of Rhodes. Exhausting siege lasted until the end of the year, till 20 December 1522 year was no agreement on the termination of the siege, in accordance with which the fortress in Rhodes, and 12 Hospitaller other structures had to be given to the Turkish side for ten days.
Among these fortresses was also Bodrum castle, which was handed over without a fight in early January 1523 year.
After the transfer of power to the Turks in the construction of the fortress was amended. Gothic chapel was the Süleymaniye Mosque, to whcih, as it should be, was pristroen minaret.
Until 19 century life in the fort went on as usual. In 1824 , after the Greek revolution Bodrum castle It became the base of the Turkish Armed Forces.
The next change of epochs Castle met darkly - it served as a prison for convicted.
The First World War also left its trail of ugly walls: during the shelling of the French battle cruiser is not one tower was destroyed by the type of Duplex and completely destroyed the chapel Mizan.
After the end of hostilities fortress occupied Italian military, whose garrison was located in Bodrum until the reign of Ataturk - the first president of the Turkish Republic.
Almost until the middle 20 century the castle was in ruins, expecting, when life again fill its walls. In 1962 Turkey, the government decided to establish a museum, dedicated to underwater archeology, and the beginning of a massive campaign to restore the integrity of the building. In the end of August 1999 the fortress once again opened its doors to visitors, wishing to see exhibits, that have been raised with shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea.
Museum of Underwater Archaeology in Bodrum
The history of the museum began in 1953 year, where fishermen still small port town of Bodrum networks pulled antique statue 4 century BC. impressive size. We began the search vessel, where the statue could be transported in Galikarnas. As a result of underwater reef it was discovered, of which broke more 40 ships from different eras. Careful study of artifacts from these ships and laid to nosnovu Museum of Underwater Archaeology, which opened in the fortress in 1961 y.
For more interesting facts
1. In 5 century BC. in ancient Halicarnassus (now Bodrum) I lived and worked “father of history” Herodotus.
2. In 4 century BC. of Halicarnassus lived and rules queen Hell, deputies curry (hell Kariyskaya).
In 1989 , the sarcophagus containing the remains of a noble woman was found in the vicinity of Bodrum, Any suggestions, they are Empress Ade. Now sarcophagus, remains and her jewels (crown, bracelets, rings with precious stones) exhibited in the Bodrum Castle.
3. The most beautiful and priceless frescoes with statues of the castle are now in the British Museum (London).
In 1846 the English ambassador in Constantinople, Lord Canning strangely got permission to export from the Castle of St. Peter 12 marble reliefs depicting the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. in 1856 by archaeologist Sir Charles Newton, discovered the ruins of the ancient mausoleum Galikarnaskogo and conducted excavations at the castle, bought and brought sculptures of lions and leopards in Britain.
Castle in Bodrum on the map
Text and photos: Evgeny Nazarenko