Milet – ancient Greek city, it went down in history as one of the oldest cities with a high cultural level, development of trade relations on a par with Ephesus and Troy (Milesians founded to 90 colonies on the coasts of the Black and Marmara seas, and one in Egypt). In Miletus he lived and worked the ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician, laid the foundations of Greek culture and statehood, as well as the European science in general, "Father of philosophy" Phales of Mileth.
According to the records of Herodotus, Milet was laid Carians. About three thousand years ago in the place came the Ionians conquered and transformed the city into the center of trade. The city developed and flourished until 494 years BC - the year of its conquest by the Persians. The geographical location and commercial importance of Miletus did not give rest to the conquerors.
After 15 years after the Persian conquest of his regained the Ionians, and in 334 BC entered the city the army of Alexander the Great. During the reign of the Byzantines on the territory of Milet was built Balat castle , gave the name of the town, the former in the course of the Muslims.
Even now it attracts the attention of a special town planning, which involved Hippodamus, a well-known activist and theorist in the field of urban development. His beautiful urban planning system has been used not only in ancient times. Hippodamus brought principle, by which the city secondary streets have traced at right angles to the central. It is used in the design of modern cities. Aristotle points, that the old master was involved in the design and planning Athenian port of Piraeus, cities Furies and Rhodes. The activities of the scientist and his contribution to the development of urban planning systems studied up to now.
Connoisseurs of antiquity have long haunted mysterious ruins. But excavations began relatively recently - in the 1899 , with the supply of German scientists. For more than a century the work of archaeologists could dig up about a third of the historical territory of the city.
The most famous tourist attraction ancient Miletus - roomy antik theater - survived to our times. The building was built by the Romans, instead of more long-time Greek theatre. Over time, the building was converted into a fortress.
Space-planning solutions Miletus
City conditionally consists of three zones: community center, residential buildings and shopping areas, adjacent to the Lion's Harbour. This is the modern name, It was awarded for discoveries, found in the sea: after one of the battles, of which in these places was a lot of, in water were stone lion heads. Likely, they belonged to the broken statues, once adorned the port area. According to the beliefs of the time, Lions had to hold enemies at the entrance to the city.
The central area of settlement consists of two parts, one of which includes a gymnasium, stadium and carefully planned park area. The second part of the center contained retail space, next to its housed social and administrative buildings.
Milet we called one of the main focal point of Asia Minor Philosophy and trade of that time. In the best of times here constantly living up to 100 thousand.
Why Miletus fell into disrepair?
Despite many wars, not only they have shaken glory of city. Milet suffered due to the nature of jokes, what happened not only with him. The sea has changed the coastline, and settlement, stood on the shore, it turned a few kilometers from the water. Popular the social and economic center were abandoned. He fell under Turkish rule in 1328 year. It was not well-known center of trade and education. Gradually, it regressed in a quiet and small village called Palatia.
Since the time of the decline of the city preserved magnificent theater, standing on the hill in the area. The theater could seat 15 thousand. For its basics used strong foundation destroyed earlier Greek theater. The ruins of the Balata preserved at the peak of the hill, it was Castle Byzantine times (VIII century). If you go up the hill and explore the surrounding area, you can see a very picturesque landscape. These views could enjoy the ancient inhabitants of Miletus in the heyday.
Milesians were lucky in their activities, and people of the ancient world called them "Minions of happiness". Place on the coast was very gracious.
Ancient Miletus on the map
Text and photos: Evgeny Nazarenko